Hannah Arendt was a humanist thinker who thought boldly and provocatively about our shared political and ethical world. Inspired by philosophy, she warned against the political dangers of philosophy to abstract and obfuscate the plurality and reality of our shared world. She fiercely defended the importance of the public sphere, but she was also intensely private and defended the importance of privacy and solitude as prerequisites for a life in public. Embraced by liberals and conservatives, she also enraged and engaged interlocutors from all political persuasions.
Why Hannah Arendt Matters
We have many visitors to the Hannah Arendt Center. Throughout the years we've hosted a wide range of scholars from around the world. In 2014, we began collecting video recordings of our distinguished guests answering the question, "Why does Arendt matter?" We're happy to present our growing archive of their responses here and on YouTube.
She fearlessly raised unpopular questions about the thoughtless embrace of science, insisted that human rights were counter productive, and courageously questioned the forced integration of schools even as she defended strongly the rights to interracial marriage and civil disobedience. In the pantheon of great thinkers, Arendt articulated the richest and most compelling vision of the human need for a public and political life. For all these reasons she has become the most taught and arguably most influential political thinker of the 20th century.
Childhood and Early Education
Hannah Arendt was born in Hanover, Germany in 1906. Her father died when she was seven and she was raised by her mother, Martha Cohn Arendt. At the University of Marburg, she studied philosophy with Martin Heidegger, with whom she also had a youthful affair; she later completed her doctoral dissertation Love and Saint Augustine at the University of Heidelberg under the supervision of Karl Jaspers.
Childhood and Early Education
In 1929 she published her dissertation and married Günther Stern, who wrote under the name of Günther Anders. They divorced in 1937. In 1933 Arendt was working for the German Federation of Zionists, led by Kurt Blumenfeld, when the political police arrested her. She fled to Paris, where she completed her biography of the brilliant 18th century German Jewish socialite Rahel Varnhagen, which remained unpublished until 1958.
From Nazi-Occupied France to New York
While in France, she worked for the organization Youth Aliyah, which rescued Jewish youth. There she met the man who would become her second husband, Heinrich Blücher. Arendt was imprisoned in a detention camp in Gurs in southwest France. After escaping, she and Blücher fled Nazi Europe, coming to New York in 1941. Through the 1940s Arendt wrote essays on anti-Semitism, refugees, and the need for a Jewish army for Aufbau and other German émigré journals. She worked as an editor for Schocken Books and served as Executive Director of The Jewish Cultural Reconstruction organization. She and Blücher lived on Riverside Drive in NYC and in Kingston, NY near Bard College where Blücher taught for 17 years.
Major Works of the 1950s and ’60s
The 1950’s saw the publication of Arendt’s major works: The Origins of Totalitarianism, her insightful study of the intellectual and historical foundations of the Nazi and Stalinist regimes, and The Human Condition, her account of the retreat of public life in the modern age. On Revolution, her third major book published in 1963, explored the genius of the American tradition of constitutional democracy and political freedom. Arendt wrote intellectual history not as a historian but as a thinker, building upon events and exemplary actions to reach original and pregnant insights about the modern predisposition to totalitarianism and threats to human freedom posed by both scientific abstraction and bourgeois morality.
Teaching Career and Publications
Fiercely independent, Arendt never accepted a tenure-track teaching job. She was nevertheless the first woman to be named a full professor at Princeton, and also taught at the University of Chicago, University of California Berkeley, Wesleyan University, and The New School. Living as a public intellectual, Arendt was a frequent contributor to The New York Review of Books, Commonweal, Dissent, and The NewYorker. She published three major anthologies in her lifetime: Between Past and Future; Men in Dark Times; and Crises of the Republic. Her unfinished last book was published as Life of the Mind and her numerous posthumous collections include Responsibility and Judgment, The Jewish Writings, and The Promise of Politics. Arendt died in 1975. She is buried alongside Blücher in the Bard College Cemetery.
The Eichmann Trial
In 1961 Arendt jumped at the chance to cover the trial of Adolf Eichmann, responsible for the detention and transportation of Jews to concentration camps. It would be her last opportunity, she wrote, to see a Nazi official in the flesh. Her essays on the trial appeared in The New Yorker and became the book Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Widely misread, Arendt’s writings about Eichmann unleashed a storm of controversy.
The Banality of Evil
Arendt argues that Eichmann was not a monster. She was struck both by the immensity of Eichmann’s crimes and the ordinariness of the man. It is one thing to kill out of malice. But how could a man responsible for transporting millions of Jews to their deaths insist he was a Zionist and seek understanding from his Jewish interrogators in Israel? Arendt saw that Eichmann became a mass murderer not simply from hatred—he never murdered anyone and initially resisted the physical killing of Jews—but from his fervent dedication to the Nazi movement.
The Banality of Evil
He was a joiner. In his own words, Eichmann feared “to live a leaderless and difficult individual life,” in which “I would receive no directives from anybody.” A bourgeois salesman down on his luck, Eichmann found in the Nazi movement a sense of importance. That desire to prove himself meaningful, combined with his use of clichés and bureaucratic role morality, rendered him unable to think clearly about what he was doing. This is what Arendt means by her famous and famously misunderstood dictum of the, “fearsome, word-and-thought-defying banality of evil.”
Hannah Arendt's Legacy
Arendt neither defends Eichmann nor denies he is evil. She recognizes he was an anti-Semite and she insists that he be hung for his evil deeds. But she also sees that his overriding motivations were neither monstrous nor sadistic. Eichmann participated in the greatest act of evil in world history because of his inability to think critically about his fidelity to a Nazi ideology that he clung to as a source of significance in a lonely and alienating world. Such thoughtless ideological zealotry is, Arendt concludes, the face of evil in the modern world.
Hannah Arendt's Legacy
Arendt never developed a coherent theory of politics, but sought instead to think, to understand the world as it is. As bad as things were, she took solace from the fact that no government could extinguish human freedom. And yet she saw clearly that modern society fears the disorderly life of democratic freedoms and embraces the comfortable security of administrative bureaucracy. In the face of such threats to public freedom, Arendt calls us to act in ways that surprise and to inaugurate new paths in history. Arendt’s lasting gift is the vital power of her defense of freedom in an increasingly unfree age.
Though often described as a philosopher, Hannah Arendt rejected that label on the grounds that philosophy is concerned with "man in the singular" and instead described herself as a political theorist because her work centers on the fact that "men, not Man, live on the earth and inhabit the world. Her works deal with the nature of power, and the subjects of politics, direct democracy, authority, and totalitarianism.
Books by Hannah Arendt
Der Liebesbergriff bei Augustin. Berlin: J. Springer, 1929
Edition of Bernard Lazare, Job's Dungheap. New York: Schocken Books, 1948.
Sechs Essays. Heidelberg: L. Schneider, 1943. (Reprinted in Die Verborgene Tradition, 1976, see below.)
The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1951. Second enlarged edition: New York: World Publishing Co., Meridian Books, 1958. Third edition, with new prefaces: new York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966, 1968, 1973.
German editions: Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft. Frankfurt: Europäische Verlagsanstalt, 1955, 1958, 1961, 1962. (British title: The Burden of Our Time. London: Secker and Warburg, 1951.)
Editionof Hermann Broch, Dichten und Erkennen, Essays, two volumes of Broch's Gesammelte Werke. Zurich: Rheinverlag, 1955 (now Frankfurt: Suhrkamp). (Arendt's introduction, translated by Richard and Clara Winson, appeared in Men in Dark Times.)
Fragwürdige Traditionsbestände im Politischen Denken der Gegenwart. Frankfurt: Europäische Verlagsanstalt, 1957. (Four essays, all included in Between Past and Future.)
The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958; (Doubleday Anchor, 1959). German edition: Vita activa oder von tätigen Leben, Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1960; Munich: Piper, 1967.
Karl Jaspers: Reden Zur Verleihung des Friedenpreises des Deutschen Buchhandels. Munich: Piper, 1958. (Reprinted in Men in Dark Times.)
Rahel Varnhagen: The Life of a Jewess. London: East and West Library, 1958. American edition: Rahel Varnhagen: The Life of a Jewish Woman. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974. German edition: Rahel Varnhagen: Lebensgeschichte einer deutschen Jüdin aus der Romantik. Munich: Piper, 1959 (Ullstein Verlag, 1975).
Die Ungarische Revolution und der totalitäre Imperialismus.Munich: Piper, 1958. (Included in 1958 American edition of The Origins of Totalitarianism.)
Von der Menschlichkeit in Finsteren Zeiten: Gedanken Zu Lessing. Hamburg: Hauswedell, 1960. Munich: Piper, 1960 (Later the first essay in Men in Dark Times.)
Between Past and Future: Six Exercises in Political Thought. New York: Viking Press, 1961. Revised edition, including two additional essays, 1968. (Four essays in Fragwürdige Traditionsbestäde im Politischen Denken der Gegenwart, 1957, see above.)
Edition of Karl Jaspers, The Great Philosophers. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1962 and 1966 (volumes 1 and 2).
Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. New York: Viking Press, 1963. Revised and enlarged edition, 1965. German edition: Eichmann in Jerusalem: Ein Bericht von der Banalität des Bösen. Munich: Piper, 1964.
On Revolution. New York: Viking Press, 1963. Revised second edition, 1965. German edition: Über die Revolution. Munich: Piper, 1963.
Men in Dark Times. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1968.
Edition of Walter Benjamin, Illuminations. Translated by Harry Zohn. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1968. (Introduction to this volume collected in Men in Dark Times.) German edition: Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1965.
On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1970. (An expanded version of "Reflections on Violence." 1969.) German edition: Macht und Gewalt. Munich: Piper, 1975.
Walter Benjamin-Bertolt Brecht: Zwei Essays. Munich: Piper, 1971 (Both essays included in Men in Dark Times.)
Crises of the Republic. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.
Wahrheit und Lüge in der Politik: Zwei Essays. Munich: Piper, 1972. (The two essays, "Lying in Politics"  and "Truth and Politics" , first appeared in English, see below.)
Die Verborgene Tradition: Acht Essays. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1976. (Six of these essays appeared in 1948 as Sechs Essays, the other two are "Zionism Reconsidered"  and "Aufklärung und Judenfrage" ).
The Jew as Pariah: Jewish Identity and Politics in the Modern Age. Edited and with an Introduction by Ron H. Feldman. New York: Grove Press, 1978. (A collection of articles on Jewish issues written between 1942 and 1966.)
The Life of the Mind. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978. (Two volumes of an uncompleted work, posthumousely published, edited by Mary McCarthy.)
Articles by Hannah Arendt
"Augustin und Protestantismus." Frankfurter Zeitung, no. 902 (12 April 1930).
"Philosophie und Soziologie. Anlässlich Karl Mannheim, 'Ideologie und Utopie.'" Die Gesellschaft (Berlin) 7 (1930): 163-176. (Reprinted in Ideologie und Wissenssoziologie. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1974).
"Rilkes Duineser Elegien," with G. Stern. Neue Schweizer Rundschau (Zurich) 23 (1930): 855-71.
A review of Hans Weil, Die Entstehung des deutschen Bildungsprinzips in Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik (Tübingen) 66 (1931): 200-205.
"Adam Müller-Renaissace?" Kölnische Zeitung, no. 501 (13 September 1932) and no. 510 (17 September 1932).
"Aufklärung und Judenfrage," Zeitschrift für die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland (Berlin) 4/2-3 (1932). (Reprinted in Die Verbogene Tradition.)
"Berliner Salon" and "Brief Rahels an Pauline Wiesel." Deutscher Almanach für das Jahr 1932 (Leipzig), pp. 175-184 and 185-190.
"Friedrich von Gentz. Zu seinem 100. Todestag am 9 Juni." Kölnische Zeitung, no. 308, 8 June 1932.
"Söreb Kierkegaard." Frankfurter Zeitung, nos. 75-76, 29 January 1932.
A review of Dr. Alice Rühle-Gerstel, Das Frauenproblem der Gegenwart in Die Gesellschaft (Berlin) 10 (1932): 177-79.
"Rahel Varnhagen. Zum 100. Todestag." Kölnische Zeitung, no. 131, 7 March 1933. (Reprinted in Judische Rundschau, no. 28/29, 7 April 1933.)
1942 "A Believer in European Unity." Review of Politics 4/2 (April 1942): 245-47. (A review of P.R. Sweet, Friedrich von Gentz: Defender of the Old Order.) "From the Dreufis Affair to France Today," Jewish Social Studies 4 (July 1942): 195-240. (Reprinted in Essays on Anti-Semitism, Conference on Jewish Relations, 1946 and used in The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part 1.) 1943 "Portrait of a Period," Menorah Journal 31 (Fall 1943): 307-14. (A review of Stefan Sweig, The World of Yesterday: An Autobiography.) "We Refugees," Menorah Journal 31 (January 1943): 69-77. "Why the Cŕemieux Decree Was Abrogated." Contemporary Jewish Record 6/2 (April 1943): 115-23 1944 "Concerning Minorities." Contemporary Jewish Record 7/4 (August 1944): 353-68. (Used in The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part 2.) "Franz Kafka: A Re-evaluation." Partisan Review 11/4 (Fall 1944): 412-22. (Reprinted in Sechs Essays and Die Verborgene Tradition in German.) "The Jew as Pariah: A Hidden Tradition." Jewish Social Studies 6/2 (February 1933): 99-122. "Our Foreign Language Groups." Chicago Jewish Forum 3/1 (Fall 1944): 23-34. "Race-Thinking before Racism." Review of Politics 6/1 (January 1944): 36-73. (Used in The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part 2.) 1945 "Approaches to the 'German Problem'." Partisan Review 12/1 (Winter 1945): 93-106. "The Assets of Personality." Contemporary Jewish Record 8/2 (April 1945): 214-16. (A review of Meyer W. Weisgal, ed., Chaim Weismann.) "Christianity an Revolution." Nation, 22 September 1945, pp. 288-89. "Dilthey as Philosopher and Historian." Partisan Review 12/3 (Summer 1945): 404-06. (A review of H.A. Hodges, Wilhelm Dilthey: An Introduction.) "Imperialism, Nationalism, Chauvinism." Review of Politics 7/4 (October 1945): 441-63. (Used in The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part 2.) "Nightmare and Flight." Partisan Review 12/2 (Spring 1945): 259-60. (A review of Denis de Rougemont, The Devil's Share.) "Organized Guilt and Universal Responbility." Jewish Frontier, January 1945, pp. 19-23. (Reprinted in Roger Smith, ed. Guilt: Man and Society. New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1971.) "Parties, Movements, and Classes." Partisan Review 12/4 (Fall 1945): 504-12. (Used in The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part 2.) "Power Politics Triumphs." Commentary 1 (December 1945): 92-93. (A review of Feliks Gross, Crossroads of Two Continents.) "The Seeds of a Fascist International." Jewish Frontier, June 1945 pp. 12-16. "The Stateless People." Contemporary Jewish Record 8/2 (April 1945): 137-53 (Used in The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part 2.) "Zionism Reconsidered. " Menorah Journal 33 (August 1945): 162-96. (Translated into German for Die Verbogene Tradition and reprinted in M. Selzer, ed. Zionism Reconsidered. New York: Macmillan Co., 1970, pp. 213-49.) 1946"Expansion and the Philosophy of Power." Sewanee Review 54 (October 1946): 601-16. (Used in The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part 2.) "French Existentialism." Nation, 23 February 1946m pp. 226-28. (Anthologized in One Hundred Years of the Nation.) "The Image of Hell." Commentary 2/3 (September 1946): 291-95. (A review of The Black Book:The Nazi Crime Against the Jewish Peoplecompiled by the Wrold Jewish Congress et al. and Max Weinreich. Hitler's Professors.) "Imperialism: Road to Suicide." Commentary 1 (February 1946): 27-35. "The Ivory Tower of Common Sense." Nation, 19 October 1946, pp. 447-49. (A review of John Dewey, Problems of Men.) "The Jewish State: 50 Years After, Where Have Herzl's Politics Led?" Commentary 1 (May 1946): 1-8. "The Nation," Review of Politics 8/1 (January 1946): 138-41. (A review of J.T. Delow, La Nation. Montreal: Editions de l'Arbre.) "No Longer and Not Yet." Nation, 14 September 1946, pp. 300-302. (A review of Hermann Broch, The Death of Virgil. Translated by J.S. Untermeyer.) "Privileged Jews." Jewish Social Studies 8/1 (January 1946). 3-30. (Reprinted in Duker and Ben-Horin, Emancipation and Counteremancipation. New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1947). "Proof Positive." Nation, 5 January 1946, p. 22. (A brief review of Victor Lange, Modern German Literature.) "The Streets of Berlin." Nation, 23 March 1946, pp. 350-51. (A review of Robert Gilbert, Meine Reime Deine Reime.) "Tentative List of Jewish Cultural Treasures in Axis-Occupied Countries." Supplement to Jewish Social Studies 8/1 (1946). (This was prepared by the Research Staff of the Commission on European Jewish Cultural Reconstruction headed by Arendt.) "Tentative List of Jewish Educational Institutions in Axis-Occupied Countries." Supplement to Jewish Social Studies 8/3 (1946). (This was prepared by the Research Staff of the Commission on European Jewish Cultural Reconstruction headed by Arendt.) "The Too Ambitious Reporter." Commentary 2 (January 1946): 94-95. (A review of Arthur Koestler, Twilight Bar and The Yogi and the Commissar.) "What is Existenz Philosophy?" Partisan Review 8/1 (Winter 1946): 34-56.
1947 "Creating a Cultural Atmosphere." Commentary 4 (November 1947): 424-26. "The Hole of Oblivion." Jewish Frontier, July 1947, pp. 23-26. (A review of The Dark Side of the Moon.) 1948 "About Collaboration" (a letter). Jewish Frontier 15 (October 1948): 55-56. "Beyond Personal Frustration: The Poetry of Berolt Brecht." Kenyon Review 10/2 (Spring 1948): 304-12. (A review of Bertolt Brecht, Selected Poems. Translated by H.R. Hays; an article based on this review, printed in Die Neue Rundschau 61 (1950): 53-67 was translated for P. Dementz, ed. Brecht. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1962, pp. 43-50.) "The Concentration Camps." Partisan Review 15/7 (July 1948): 743-63. (Anthologized in Partisan Reader, 1945-1953 and used in The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part 2.) "Jewish History, Revised." Jewish Frontier, March 1948, pp. 34-38. (A review of Gershom Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism.) "The Mission of Bernadette." New Leader 31 (23 October 1948): 808, 819. "To Save the Jewish Homeland: There is Still Time." Commentary 5 (May 1948): 398-406. 1949 "The Achievement of Hermann Broch." Kenyan Review 11/3 (Summer 1949): 476-83. "The Rights of Man': What Are They?" Modern Review 3/1 (Summer 1949): 24-37. (Used in The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part 2.) "Single Track to Zion." Saturday Review of Literature 32 (5 February 1949): 22-23. (A review of Chaim Weizmann, Trial and Error: The Autobiography of Chaim Weizman.) "Totalitarian Terror." Review of Politics 11/1 (January 1949): 112-15. (A review of David J. Dallin and Boris I. Nicolaevsky, Forced Labor in Soviet Russia.)
1950 "The Aftermath of Nazi Rule, Report from Germany." Commentary 10 (October 1950): 342-352 (Anthologized in The Commentary Reader.) "Mob and the Elite." Partisan Review 17 (November 1950): 808-19. (Used in The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part 3.) "Peace or Armistice in the Near East?" Review of Politics 12/1 (January 1950): 56-82. "Religion and the Intellectuals. A Symposium." Partisan Review 17 (February 1950): 113-16. (Reprinted as a part of Partisan Review, Series 3, 1950, pp. 15-18.) "Social Science Techniques and the Study of Concentration Camps." Jewish Social Studies 12/1 (1950): 49-64. 1951 "Bei Hitler Zu Tisch." Der Monat 4 (October 1951): 85-90. "The Imperialist Character." Review of Politics 12/3 (July 1950): 303-20. (Used in The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part 2.) "The Road to the Dreyfus Affair." Commentary 11 (February 1951): 201-03. (A review of Robert F. Byrnes, Anti-Semitism in Modern France.) "Totalitarian Movement." Twentieth Century 149 (May 1951): 368-89. (Used in The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part 3.) 1952 "The History of the Great Crime." Commentary 13 (March 1952): 300-04. (A review of Léon Poliakov, Bréviaire de la Haine: Le IIIê Reich et les Juifs.) "Magnes, The Conscience of the Jewish People." Jewish Newsletter8/25 (24 November 1952): 2. 1953 "The Ex-Communists." Commonweal 57/24 (20 March 1953): 595-99. (Reprinted in Washington Post, 31 July 1953.) "Ideology and Terror: A Novel Form of Government." Review of Politics15/3 (July 1953): 303-27. (Included in the 1958 edition of The Origins of Totalitarianism. A German version appeared in Offener Horizont: Fetschrift für Karl Jaspers. Munich: Piper, 1953.) "Rejoinder to Eric Voegelin's Review of The Origins of Totalitarianism." Review of Politics 15 (January 1953): 76-85. "Religion and Politics." Confluence 2/3 (September 1953): 105-26. (CF. Arendt's reply to criticism of this article in Confluence, pp. 118-20.) "Understanding and Politics." Partisan Review 20/4 (July-August 1953): 377-92. "Understanding Communism." Partisan Review 20/5 (September-October 1953): 580-83. (A review of Waldemar Gurian, Bolshevism.) 1954 "Europe and America: Dream and Nightmare." Commonweal 60/23 (24 September 1954): 551-54. "Europe and America: The Threat of Conformism." Commonweal 60/25 (24 September 1954): 607-10. "Europe and the Atom Bomb." Commonweal 60/24 (17 September 1954): 578-80. "Tradition and the Modern Age." Partisan Review 22 (January 1954): 53-75. (Drawn from a series of lectures delivered at Princeton as the Christian Gauss Seminars in Criticism, 1953, and used in Between Past and Future.) 1955 "The Personality of Waldemar Gurian," Review of Politics 17/1 (January 1955): 33-42. (Reprinted in Men in Dark Times.) 1956 "Authority in the Twentieth Century." Review of Politics 18/4 (October 1956): 403-17. 1957 "History and Immortality." Partisan Review 24/1 (Winter 1957): 11-53. "Jaspers as Citizen of the World." In The Philosophy of Karl Jaspers, edited by P.A. Schilpp. La Salle, Ill.: Open Court Publishing Co., 1957, pp. 539-50. (Reprinted in Men in Dark Times.) 1958 "The Crisis in Education." Partisan Review 25/4 (Fall 1958): 493-513. (Reprinted in Between Past and Future.) "The Modern Concept of History." Review of Politics 20/4 (October 1958): 570-90. (Reprinted in Between Past and Future.) "Totalitarian Imperialism: Reflections on the Hungarian Revolution." Journal of Politics 20/1 (February 1958): 5-43. (Reprinted in Cross Currents 8/2 [Spring 1958]: 102-28, and added to the 1958 edition of The Origins of Totalitarianism.) "Totalitarianism." Meridian 2/2 (Fall 1958): 1. (Arendt's reflections on The Origins of Totalitarianism at the time of its second edition.) "What Was Authority?" In Authority, edited by C. Friedrich. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. (Reprinted in Between Past and Future.) 1959 "Reflections on Little Rock." Dissent 6/1 (Winter 1959): 45-56. (Included in the same issue are criticism by David Spitz and Melvin Tumin. In Dissent 6/2 [Sprig 1959]: 179-81, Arendt replied to her critics. The article was reprinted in Public Life: A Journal of Politics 4/3-4 [May-June 1973]: 92-97.)
1960 "Freedom and Politics: A Lecture." Chicago Review 14/1 (Spring 1960): 28-46. (Revised for Between Past and Future.) "Revolution and Public Happiness." Commentary 30 (November 1960): 413-22. (Used in On Revolution.) "Society and Culture." Daedalus 82/2 (Spring 1960): 278-87. (Reprinted in Between Past and Future.) 1962 "Action and the Pursuit of Happiness." In Politische Ordnung und Menschliche Existenz: Festgabe Für Eric Voeglin. Munich: Beck, 1962. (Used in On Revolution.) "The Cold War and the West." Partisan Review 29/1 (Winter 1962): 10-20. "Revolution and Freedom: A Lecture." In In Zwei Welten: Siegfried Moses Zum Fünfundsiebzigsten Geburtstag. Tel Aviv: Bitaon, 1962. (Used in On Revolution.) 1963 "A Reporter at Large: Eichmann in Jersualem." New Yorker, 16 February 1963, pp. 40-113; 23 February 1963. pp. 40-111; 2 March 1963, pp. 40-91; 9 March 1963, pp. 48-131; 16 March 1963, pp. 58-134. (This five-part article, revised, was published as Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil.) "Kennedy and After." New York Review of Books 1/9 (26 December 1963): 10. "Man's Conquest of Space." American Scholar 32 (Autumn 1963): 527-40. "Reply to Judge Musmanno," New York Times Book Review 8/4 (23 June 1963): (Arendt's exchange with Musmanno was reprinted in Freedman and Davis, eds. Contemporary Controversy. New York: Macmillan Co., 1966, pp. 312-17.) 1964 "The Deputy: Guilt by Silence." New York Herald Tribune Magazine, 23 February 1964, pp. 6-9. (Reprinted in Storm over "The Deputy," edited by Eric Bentley.) "Eichmann in Jerusalem." Encounter, January 1964, pp. 51-56. (An exchange of letters between Arendt and Gershom Scholem.) "Nathalie Sarraute." New York Review of Books 2/2 (5 March 1964): 5-6. (A review of Nathalie Sarraute, The Golden Fruits. Translated by Maria Jolas.) "Personal Responsibility under Dictatorship." Listener, 6 August 1964, pp. 185-87, 205. 1965 "The Christian Pope," New York Review of Books 4/10 (17 June 1965): 5-7. (A review of Pope John XXIII, Journal of a Soul. Translated by D. White; included in Men in Dark Times.) "Hannah Arendt-Hans Magnus Ernzenberger: Politik und Verbrechen: Ein Briefwechsel." Merkur, April 1965, pp. 380-85. 1966 "The Formidable Dr. Robinson: A Reply to the Jewish Establishment." New York Review of Books 5/12 (20 January 1966): 26-30. (Arendt's response to letters about this article appeared in the 17 March 1966 issue.) "A Heroine of the Revolution." New York Review of Books 7/5 (6 October 1966): 21-27. (A review of J.P. Nettl, Rosa Luxemburg; included in Men in Dark Times.) Introduction to Auschwitz, by Bernd Naumann. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966. (Reprinted in Falk, Kolko, and Lifton, eds., Crimes of War. New York: Random House, 1971.) Introduction to The Warriors by J. Glenn Gray. New York: Harper & Row, 1966. "The Negatives of Positive Thinking: A Measured Look at the Personality, Politics and Influence of Konrad Adenauer." Book Week, Washington Post, 5 June 1966, pp. 1-2. (A review of Konrad Adenauer, Memoirs 1945-1953. Translated by Beate Ruhm von Oppen.) "On the Human Condition." In The Evolving Society, edited by Mary Alice Hinton. New York: Institute of Cybernetical Research 1966, pp. 213-19. "Remarks on 'The Crisis Character of Modern Society'." Christianity and Crisis 26/9 (30 May 1966): 112-14. "What is Permitted to Jove." New Yorker, 5 November 1966. pp. 68-122. (A study of Bertolt Brecht, reprinted in Men in Dark Times.) 1967 Preface to The Future of Germany by Karl Jaspers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967. "Randall Jarrell: 1914-1965." In Randall Jarrell, 1945-1965. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1967. (Reprinted in Men in Dark Times.) "Truth and Politics." New Yorker, 25 February 1967, pp. 49-88. (Reprinted in Between Past and Future, 2d edition, and in David Spitz, ed., Political Theory and Social Change. New York: Atherton Press, 1967, pp. 3-37.) 1968 "Comment by Hannah Arendt on 'The Uses of Revolution' by Adam Ulkam." In Revolutionary Russia, edited by Richard Pipes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968. "He's All Dwight: Dwight Macdonald's Politics." New York Review of Books 11/2 (1 August 1968): 31-33. "Is America by Nature a Violent Society? Lawlessness Is Inherent in the Uprooted." New York Times Magazine, 28 April 1968, p. 24. 'Isaak Denisen: 1885-1962." New Yorker, 9 November 1968, pp. 223-36. (Reprinted in Men in Dark Times.) "Walter Benjamin." New Yorker, 19 October 1968, pp. 65-156. Translated by Harry Zohn. (Reprinted in Men in Dark Times.) 1969 "The Archimedean Point." Igenor, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Spring 1969, pp. 4-9, 24-26. "Reflections on Violence." Journal of International Affairs, Winter, 1969, pp. 1-35. (Reprinted in New York Review of Books 12/4 (27 February 1969): 19-31. Expanded as On Violence and reprinted in Crises of the Republic.) 1970 "Civil Disobedience." New Yorker, 12 September 1970, pp. 70-105. (Reprinted in Crises of the Republic and in E.V. Rostow, ed., Is Law Dead? New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971, pp. 213-43.) Letter in reply to a review by J.M. Cameron, New York Review of Books13 (1 January 1970): 36. 1971 "Lying and Politics: Reflections on the Pentagon Papers." New York Review of Books 17/8 (18 November 1971): 30-39. (Reprinted in Crises of the Republic.) "Martin Heidegger at 80." New York Review of Books 17/6 (21 October 1971): 50-54. (Originally in German, Merkur 10 : 893-902. Translated by Albert Hofstadter. Reprinted in English in Michael Murray, ed., Heidegger and Modern Philosophy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978.) "Thinking and Moral Considerations: A Lecture." Social Research 38/3 (Fall 1971): 417-46. "Thoughts on Politics and Revolution." New York Review of Books 16/7 (22 April 1971): 8-20. (An interview conducted by Adelbert Reif in the summer of 1970, translated by Denver Lindley; reprinted in Crises of the Republic.) 1972 Nachwort for Mich Hat Kein Esel im Galopp Verloren by Robert Gilbert. Munich: Piper, 1972. "Washington's 'Problem-Solvers'-Where They Went Wrong." New York Times, 5 April 1972, Op-Ed page. 1974 "Karl Jaspers zum fünfundachtzigsten Geburtstage." In Erinnerungen an Karl Jaspers, edited by H. Saner. Munich: Piper, 1974, pp. 311-15. 1975 "Home to Roost." New York Review of Books, 26 June 1975, pp. 3-6. (Reprinted in S.B. Warner, The American Experiment. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1976, pp. 61-77, with Arendt's comments.) "Remembering Wystan H. Auden." New Yorker, 20 January 1975, pp. 39-40. (Reprinted in Harvard Advocate 108/2-3, pp. 42-45; and in W.H. Auden: A Tribute. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1974/5, pp. 181-87.) 1977 "Public Rights and Private Interests." In Small Comforts for Hard Times: Humanists on Public Policy, edited by Mooney and Stuber. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977. (Response to a paper by Charles Frankel in the same volume.) "Thinking." New Yorker, 21 November 1977, pp. 65-140; 28 November 1977, pp. 135-216; 5 December 1977, pp. 135-216. This three-part article comprises the first volume of The Life of the Mind, 1978. 1978 "From an Interview," with Roger Errera, New York Review of Books 25/16 (26 October 1978): 18.
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